Brotherhood beyond the Ummah: Theological and socio-cultural perspectives to potential of coexistence

KÜÇÜK S., Gungor O.

HTS TEOLOGIESE STUDIES-THEOLOGICAL STUDIES, vol.77, no.4, 2021 (AHCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 77 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.4102/hts.v77i4.6745
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, ATLA Religion Database, Old Testament Abstracts Online, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: coexistence, Islam, Ummah, Western civilization, comparative perspectives
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


When we look at a single example in the comparison of the West and the East, the ban on minarets in Switzerland or the absence of any churches in Saudi Arabia leads to incorrect conclusions. Such ideological selectivity hinders the model of coexistence. In this research study, we mentioned the possibilities, needs and minimum requirements of a coexistence model beyond the Ummah. We perform firstly (1) the description or diagnosis of the given situation, namely the determination of the problem: the political or historical, theological and cultural sources, and origin of the problem; (2) the expansion of the given situation to the paradigm from the history, the spirit of the times, theological sources and principles; and (3) solution: updating the theological, political and cultural displacements and applying them in the current context.