Ecology 2017, Kayseri, Türkiye, 11 - 13 Mayıs 2017, ss.170
Introduction: Carmoisine and sunset yellow are food colorants which have a wide range of usage from food industry to cosmetics. It has been observed that these colorants, which have toxic effects on organisms when used in high doses, cause hyperactivity in children. The objective of this paper was to evaluate toxic effects of these colorants on Zea mays.
Material and Methods: Model organisms is a sweet corn and provided from May Tohum Carmoisine and sunset yellow were provided from markets. Root and shoot inhibition test, chlorophyll pigment analysis, alfa amylase activity and RAPD PCR methods were used to determine the effects of food colorants.
Results: Z. mays root inhibition test was used to calculate EC50 values for carmosine and sunset yellow, which were 20 g/L and 22.5 g/L, respectively. In pigment analysis, it was determined that amounts of clorophyll a and chlorophyll b were decreased when compared to control group for all of the carmoisine(10, 20 and 40 g/L) and sunset yellow (11.25, 22.5 and 45 g/L) concentrations. With increasing dose, the reduction in chlorophyll levels increased., A slight increase was observed in α-amylase enzyme activity in groups treated with 10 g/L and 20 g/L of carmosine, while a decrease in enzyme activity was observed in the group treated with 40 g/L of carmosine. For sunset yellow, a decrease in enzyme activity was observed in the inverse proportion to the doses in the application groups of11.25 g/L, 22.5 g/L and 45 g/L. 94 bands were obtained from the 10 primers in the carmosine application groups after RAPD-PCR analysis. 67 of these bands were found to be polymorphic. When evaluating primers; OPA-4 was the most polymorphic band in carmoisine treated groups with 100 % ratio whereas the most monomorphic band was OPA-8 with 56 %. The percentage of polymorphic bands was 71 %. OPA-4 with 89 % ratio of primer giving the most polymorphic band in sunset yellow treated groups whereas the most monomorphic band was OPA-3 with 60 %. The proportion of polymorphic bands was as 53 %.
Discussion: In conclusion, all the tests showed that food colorants have toxic effects on Z. mays. So, should be avoided the use of these food colorants and natural colorants should be preferred.
Keywords: Genotoxicity, Carmoisin, RAPD PCR, Sunset yellow, Zea mays.