To evaluate the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), selective nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), and p38-mitogene-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) on hyperoxaluria-induced oxidative stress and stone formation in rat kidneys. The rats were divided into five groups: group 1, control group; group 2: ethylene glycol (EG) group; group 3: EG+pomegranate juice (PJ)-low group; group 4: EG+PJ-middle group; group 5: EG+PJ-high group. Rats were sacrificed on 7, 15, and 45 days. The iNOS expression, p65-NF-kB and p38-MAPK activity, and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in the kidney. Crystal depositions were evident on day 7, and mild and severe crystallization were observed on day 15 and 45 in EG group, respectively. There was limited or no crystal formation in rats in both middle- and high-dose PJ groups when compared to low-dose PJ group. Crystal depositions, iNOS, p38-MAPK and p65-NF-kB activity, and oxidative stress markers were found to be decreased by middle- and high-dose PJ treatment. PJ was found to have inhibitory effects on renal tubular cell injury and oxidative stress caused by oxalate crystals by reducing ROS, iNOS, p38-MAPK, and NF-kB expression.