Nephrotoxicity is a major complication of gentamicin (GEN), which is widely used in the treatment of severe gram-negative infections. Reactive oxygen spaces (ROS) are important mediators of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have different activities including antioxidant properties. This study was performed to investigate the protective role of PPAR-gamma agonist against GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar Albino rats were randomly divided into the following four groups, each of which consisted of six animals: (1) control; (2) intraperitoneally injected with GEN for 14 consecutive days (100 mg/kg/day); (3) treatment with rosiglitazone (RSG) via nasogastric gavage (10 mg/kg/daily for 14 days); (4) treatment with GEN + RSG combination for 14 day. Rats were decapitated on the 15th day and kidneys were removed. Urine was collected for every 24 h for the determination of daily urine volume. Urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+ levels were measured in blood. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathion (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) levels along with glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in the renal tissue. Changes in body weight were recorded. GEN treatment was found to cause nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. Renal impairment was also assessed by the renal histology. The significant decrease in GSH and increases in MDA and NO levels as well as a decrease in GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD activities indicated that GEN-induced renal damage was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, RSG administration protected kidney tissue against GEN-induced and free radical-mediated oxidative renal damage in rats.