The Neogene-Quaternary succession in the Kutahya region is of importance in the neotectonic evolution of western Anatolia because the strata contain clear evidence of compression and extension. During the early-middle Miocene, N-S compression/transpression as well as NE-SW- and NW-SE-oriented oblique conjugate faults formed. NE-SW-oriented horsts and grabens developed, controlled by the dominant NE-SW faults. The Seyitomer and Sabuncupinar grabens were filled primarily by terrestrial clastic sedimentary and volcanic rocks. At the end of the middle Miocene, the graben fill was locally folded and reverse faulted, reflecting reactivation of compression. Between the late Miocene and the middle Pliocene, the region underwent erosion and lacustrine sediments accumulated in topographic lows. Between the middle and late Pliocene, compression in the region was again reactivated and basal units were thrust over the pre-upper Pliocene units. The late Plio-Quaternary marked the onset of N-S extension and development of the NW-SE-oriented Kutahya Graben, co-genetic equivalents of which are common throughout western Anatolia. This study indicates that tectonic evolution of western Anatolia involved multiple stages of contraction and extension.