We present herein an unusual case of anthrax pneumonia secondary to gastrointestinal infection. In this case, severe abdominal pain occurred during the course of a stent placement procedure. The patient had undergone surgery with the prediagnosis of intestinal ischemia. On the second postoperative day, pneumonia developed and B. anthracis grew as the etiologic agent. Pathological examination of small-bowel sections revealed findings in accordance with anthrax. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.