The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mobile phone usage policies on college students' learning. Based on quasi-experimental research, with pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design, two pre-existing groups were randomly assigned treatment conditions, namely the removal of students' mobile phones (Restricted Phone Access), and the allowance for students' mobile phone usage (Unrestricted Phone Access) during class lectures. Data were collected from 63 college students, of which 25 were in the Restricted Phone Access group and 38 in the Unrestricted Phone Access group, using pretest and posttest. The results of a mixed analysis of variance test showed that the change in students' scores from pretest to posttest was significantly greater for the Restricted Phone Access group than the Unrestricted Phone Access group, although there was a statistically significant increase seen in the students' test scores from pretest to posttest regardless of any policy on mobile phone usage. This study discusses the theoretical and practical implications, and then recommendations were put forward with regards to future studies in this area.