Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play an important role in T cell development and activation. In vitro and in vivo defects, resulting in variable deficiencies in thymic development and in T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction, in PTKs have been shown. ZAP70, one of those PTKs, is a 70-kDa tyrosine phosphoprotein and associates with the chain zeta and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation following TCR stimulation. It is expressed in T and natural killer (NK) cells. Several mutations were shown to lead to an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID).