This article examines the human rights of minorities (huquq al-aqalliyyah) in the context of the Iraqi region. In the first part of the study, the general course of Iraqi political history, including Saddam's tenure, is discussed. After an overview of the historical and political conditions of minorities in Iraq, the political discrimination against Shiite and Kurdish groups, especially during the Saddam era, and the unofficial political oppression of Shiites on Sunnis, the dominant political element in post-Saddam Iraq, against Sunni and other minorities, are compared. The research also focuses on the ethnoreligious political mobilization developed by societies against this discrimination. In addition, our article explores the current situation and rights of minorities in Iraq and the reasons for their migration from Iraq. In addition, this study points out the difficulties of minority law in Iraqi practice as it is used in "Western" states and discusses the reasons for this. Because this unofficial repression against Sunnis and Kurds paved the way for the emergence of a fanatical Sunni group called ISIS in Iraq, they described non-Muslim minorities as "dhimmis" using Islamic terminology, thus trying to legitimize their murders. From this point of view, the article aims to analyze the political discrimination applied by the Iraqi state and the murders committed by ISIS in the name of Islam from the perspective of contemporary Islamic law.