In this prospective, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of prophylactic ondansetron therapy on emergence agitation of children who underwent minor surgery below the umbilicus. Seventy children aged one to six years and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I were studied. Children were premedicated with midazolam rectally and were randomly assigned to receive either ondansetron (Group O) or placebo (Group P) in combination with caudal anaesthesia. Children in Group 0 received intravenous ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg for children weighing < 40 kg, 4 mg for children weighing > 40 kg) and Group P (n=35) received normal saline 2 ml following anaesthesia induction with sevoflurane. Airway management was provided with LMA-Proseal without muscle relaxation and anaesthesia maintenance was provided with a 60:40 N2O:O-2 mixture and sevoflurane. Emergence agitation was evaluated with a ten point scale and pain level was assessed every 10 minutes for the first 30 minutes after admission to the recovery room.