Long-term behavior of lime-stabilized kaolinite clay

KAVAK A. , Baykal G.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.66, no.7, pp.1943-1955, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-011-1419-8
  • Page Numbers: pp.1943-1955


Clay soils create many problems for highway construction and they have to be replaced or improved by stabilization for satisfactory performance. Lime stabilization is a well-established technique to improve the performance of clays. Cementitious minerals form upon mixing of clay with lime causing an improvement in strength and durability. In the study, the changes in the microfabric of long-term cured lime-stabilized kaolinite clay using X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscope and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) is presented. Unconfined compression test samples at two different lime contents (4 and 12% by weight) were prepared and cured in a humidity room for long time curing. The UCS of pure kaolinite was originally 125 kPa, which increased to 1,015 kPa after 1 month and to 2,640 kPa (21 times the initial value) after 10 years for cured lime-stabilized kaolinite samples. Similar long-term strength increases were also observed for stabilized kaolinite with 12% lime. Calcium aluminate silicate hydrate minerals were detected in the structure of the kaolinite. This suggests pozzolanic reactions with lime stabilization may continue in the long-term for up to 10 years.