In this study we evaluated the indications, complications, and the spectrum of histopathological results of percutaneous renal needle biopsy (PRNB) performed in our clinic. Between June 1990 and December 2006, 679 PRNBs were performed on native kidneys of 614 children (304 boys, 310 girls) with a mean age of 10.4 years. Most frequent indications for PRNB were nephrotic syndrome (47%), hematuria, and/or proteinuria (15.9%), acute renal failure (14.6%) and complex renal manifestations (18.9%). The overall complication rate was 15.2%. The most common complications were perirenal hematoma (12.4%) and macroscopic hematuria (2.6%). The most frequent histopathological group of diseases were glomerulopathies; these were diagnosed in 376 patients (61.2%) and included membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (11.1%), mesangial proliferation (10.7%), diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (7.7%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (7.3%) as the most frequent. The second most frequent group of histopathology was manifestations secondary to systemic diseases; these were shown in 195 patients (31.8%). Amyloidosis (11.4%) and Henoch-Schonlein nephritis (9.9%) made the majority of this group. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that PRNB is a safe procedure with usually transient complications showing the most frequent renal diseases that cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties for pediatric nephrologists.