It has been reported that gentamicin causes natriuresis, magnesuria and calciuria in neonates. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of trough and peak levels of gentamicin on the values of serum creatinine (SCr), urine albumin/urine creatinine (UA/UCr), fractional excretion of sodium and potassium (FENa, FEK) and urine calcium/urine creatinine (UCa/UCr) in preterm neonates treated with gentamicin for suspected infection. Baseline levels of serum and urine Cr, Na and K and urine albumin and Ca levels together with trough and peak gentamicin levels were measured in 61 preterm neonates at the start of the therapy, on the day of the third gentamicin dose and 48-72 h after the cessation of the gentamicin therapy. Therapeutic trough and peak levels were recorded in 56 (91.8%) and 39 (63.9%) of the preterm neonates, respectively, whereas high trough (> 2 mg/dl) and peak (> 9.99 mg/dl) levels were recorded in five (8.1%) and 11 (18%) of the 61 preterm neonates, respectively. Trough and peak levels of gentamicin were positively correlated with SCr, UA/UCr, FENa, FEK and UCa/UCr values. The UA/UCr, FENa and UCa/UCr values recorded during treatment were statistically significantly different from sub-therapeutic, therapeutic and high peak gentamicin levels. Gentamicin was found to have a serum peak level-dependent microalbuminuric, natriuric and calciuric effect in preterm neonates. Based on these results, we suggest that when the monitoring of serum gentamicin levels is not possible, the monitoring of UA/UCr, FENa and UCa/UCr can be useful as a noninvasive alternative.