The effects of thermal aging on the properties of unfilled and random oriented short fiber reinforced PEEK and its composites have been studied. After the isothermal aging process, there is a remarkable decrease in degree of crystallinity but more organized crystallize structure achieved. As a result of transcrystalline layer formation, there was a considerable increase in the flexural modulus of materials. Thermal aging affects the impact properties of filled and unfilled PEEK dramatically. F-max, E-max and E.F-max results of both filled and unfilled aged PEEK and its composites are dramatically decreased. Thermal aging makes materials more brittle and there was a significant decrease in toughness. % Crystallinity is not the unique parameters to determine polymer's performance. The orientation of crystals is another important parameter in microstructure and plays important role in mechanical and tribological properties of PEEK and its composites. There is a close relationship between thermal aging and microstructure. But there is not a linear relationship between microstructure and tribological properties. Microstructural changes after thermal aging serves developed mechanical properties. Increased mechanical properties results in improved tribological properties. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.