The Lichtenstein hernia repair is associated with low recurrence rates and short operation times, and can be performed under local anesthesia. Thus, this is among the most-preferred methods used in recent years. Our objective was to explore the same-day discharge rates, and the causes of delayed discharge and re-admission to hospital, of patients treated using the Lichtenstein repair method, to evaluate the feasibility of performing same-day hernia surgery in clinical practice. One hundred of a total of 236 patients diagnosed with unilateral inguinal or femoral hernias, who required surgical treatment, and who agreed with the conditions of the study, were prospectively included. All patients were treated using the Lichtenstein mesh repair method, under local anesthesia between June 2006 and January 2008. We investigated the types and locations of hernias, duration of surgery, seniority of the surgeon, the feasibility of same-day surgery in subgroups stratified by ASA risk scores, and postoperative complication rates, in patients who underwent inguinal surgery under local anesthesia. The rates of pain and postoperative complications were very low in hernia patients who underwent same-day surgery under local anesthesia. The operation reduces the length of hospital stay and helps patients mobilize earlier. Both the literature, and our data, indicate that inguinal hernia repair under local anesthesia is safe and effective, reducing anesthesia-related complications and the length of hospital stay; is cost-effective; and is applicable in all patients.