Bolt production with a grade of 10.9 class quality made from AISI4140 material with a low thread rolling index is usually implemented in accordance with the thread rolling method (cold forming) in industrial applications. In this method, the effects of die revolutions and multiple passes are unknown in the thread forming process as the devices are usually operated with respect to geometrical dimensions but not the mechanical properties and microstructures of the material. In the literature there are few studies on microstructures of low-carbon steel having a higher thread rolling index in bolt production. This study experimentally examined the effects of the processing parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructures. Parameters such as forming speed and single or multi-pass influences were considered in the production of M12 × 1.75 and M20 × 2.5 fasteners widely used in industrial applications. The experiments identified the behavior of the mechanical properties, microstructures and micro-hardness of the AISI4140 material at two forming speeds (rpm) and three passes in the thread rolling process. Thus, significantly sensible outcomes as a function of processing parameters were obtained considering the thread strength viewpoints.