In this study, we examined the effect of preoperatively administered resveratrol (RV) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on regeneration of partially hepatectomized rat liver. We also evaluated the effect of RV on homing of MSCs. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and cultured in vitro. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups. In groups, rats received (1) no treatment, (2) single dose RV, (3) MSCs and (4) RV plus MSCs before partial hepatectomy (PH). Injected MSCs were traced by labeling them with green fluorescent protein, and liver regeneration was determined by comparison of liver weight gain, histological examination and immunohistochemical staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for mitotic cells. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were also determined in the parafin sections of liver specimens with immunohistochemical staining. Administration of RV and MSCs separately or together enhanced liver regeneration despite decreasing the TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression. This positive contribution was probably due to direct raising effect on HGF for RV and HGF expression for MSCs that we demonstrated with immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, RV increased the homing of MSCs in liver probably related to life prolonging effect on MSCs. These results indicate that preoperative RV as well as MSCs application enhances liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. Paying attention to RV about the effect on liver regeneration and homing of MSCs might be the goal of further investigations.