Although almost a century has gone by since its first description in the country, Turkey has not been able to eradicate brucellosis, which remains a major public health problem. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Turkey. Although little readily accessible data concerning the epidemiology of brucellosis in Turkey are available, the limited official and published data were analyzed. Despite being endemic in Turkey, brucellosis remains under-diagnosed and under-reported. Adherence to traditional farming practices and lifestyles and the consumption of fresh dairy produce contribute to the high incidence of brucellosis. The successful implementation of a national brucellosis control program requires strong political will, good funding, and collaboration, especially between the public health and veterinary sectors. Primary healthcare workers should always keep the symptoms of acute and chronic brucellosis in mind when treating patients. (C) 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.