Environmentally friendly processes from coffee wastes to trimethylolpropane esters to be considered biolubricants

Unugul T., KUTLUK T., Gurkaya Kutluk B., KAPUCU N.

JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, vol.70, no.11, pp.1198-1215, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 70 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10962247.2020.1788664
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, EMBASE, Environment Index, Greenfile, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1198-1215
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, an eco-friendly renewable biodegradable alternative to petroleum-based oil lubricants was produced using espresso coffee wastes. Waste coffee oil used as raw material was extracted from Espresso coffee wastes by Soxhlet and conventional solvent extraction. Free fatty acids (FFA) were obtained by hydrolysis of the obtained waste oil using Lipozyme TL IM (Thermomyces lanuginosus). The byproduct, glycerol, was also separated from the reaction medium using a separatory funnel. The obtained FFA was used as a raw material in the production of TMP esters. Polyol esters of fatty acids were synthesized as a result of the esterification reaction between FFA and polyol alcohol (trimethylolpropane (TMP)) using Novozyme 435 (Candida antarctica). The amount of FFA in the medium and the FFA conversion was determined by titration with NaOH solution according to ASTM D 5555-95 standard and the FFA composition of espresso coffee oil by GC. The oil content of espresso coffee extract was found to be rich by 16% and the FFA composition was rich in palmitic acid (C(16:0)43% by weight) and linoleic acid (C(18:2)31% by weight). 31% of FFA was obtained from the coffee oil. Experimental studies have shown that the highest FFA conversion of 88% with 93% TMP tri-ester content was obtained at a temperature of 55 degrees C, 5% enzyme (w/w), non-aqueous media, 3/1 FFA/TMP mole ratio, 500 rpm mixing speed and 24 hours. Implications: Filter coffee wastes, which have become one of the most important biological wastes with an annual production capacity of 6 million tons worldwide; It is targeted to be transformed into environmentally friendly products, as it is important in terms of economy and policies of many developing countries, it is a renewable resource and there is a high amount of waste accumulation day by day. Evaluation of waste filter coffees and oils with this research article; It is envisaged that the bio-lubricating oil used in many sectors will be synthesized and commercialized with an environmentally friendly process.