Contrast-enhanced 3D MR voiding urethrography (CE 3D MRVU) was performed on 5 healthy volunteers and IS patients with urethral disease. After intravenous injection of 0.3 ml/kg gadolinium, the images of the three consecutive acquisitions of the 3D MRVU technique were obtained during voiding. The raw data were reconstructed on all patients for visual analysis. The image quality of the volunteers was technically sufficient to demonstrate normal urethral anatomy. Contrast-enhanced 3D MR voiding urethrography of the urethral strictures was compared with conventional retrograde urethrography (n = 10) and urethroscopy (n = 12). The urethral pathologies including strictures and other obstructive causes of impaired urethral flow were correctly identified on CE 3D MRVU. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.