Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are relatively rare tumors. Tumors that once would have been diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma are now often designated as peripheral neuroepithelioma or synonymously PNET. This paper reports a case of PNET located orally on the tongue, which is, to our knowledge, the first case reported in medical literature. The patient was treated with postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Multiple liver metastases occurred 5 months after the initial diagnosis and following extensive chemotherapy the patient was only able to survive for a further 10 months. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.