This study evaluates PCDD/F pollution in the surface sediments of Izmit Bay (Turkey) and assesses the possible sources of PCDD/F inputs to the bay. The results showed that concentrations of toxic PCDD/F congeners in the sediments varied between 0.45 and 255 ng WHO2005-TEQ/kg dry weight. Pollution mapping shows that PCDD/F levels in the central section of Izmit Bay are much higher than those in the eastern and the western sections. Sediments collected from the northern part of the central section showed very high PCDD/F concentrations. The samples reveal three different congener profiles dominated by OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDD respectively. The dominance of OCDF in the sediment samples taken from the central section was attributed to the former production of vinyl chloride monomer in the area, while that of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF was attributed to the (previously unknown) use of a chlorophenol-based fungicide in the region. The OCDD dominated group was explained by the use of pentachlorophenol. The results indicate that historic industrial discharges are the main contributor to the PCDD/F pollution in the sediments.