The consumption of various energy resources in the world since the beginning of industrial revolution has changed due to several causes, such as the economy, availability, transportation and environmental effects as well as climate change phenomena. The use of fossil fuels has become rather harmful for the environment in which human beings live, especially in the urban areas of the world. Various emissions, such as sulfates, nitrates, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and aerosols, into the atmosphere give rise to many undesirable consequences. Therefore, human beings are seeking to substitute friendly alternatives for the harmful energy sources. This paper concentrates on using bagasse, obtained in the processing of sugar cane, as a fuel for boilers instead of fossil fuels. Basic factors in economic areas are also presented with particular emphasis on other competitive technologies that are used in the sugar industry. At the same time, stack gas is applied at 245 degrees C for increasing the calorific value by removing water in 50% moisture bagasse. After drying, the moisture of the bagasse is reduced to 32.86%, and the calorific value is improved by 7.56%. Both energy usage and sugar production are calculated comparatively for the Adapazari Sugar Beet Factory in Turkey and the Shakarganj Sugar Cane Factory in Pakistan, paying special attention to environmental considerations. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.