Behcet's syndrome (BS) is a systemic inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology. Investigation of proteome profiles of disease specific cells facilitates our understanding of the processes and related molecular pathways, especially in disorders like BS with complex inheritance pattern and clinical heterogeneity. In the current study, we evaluated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) proteome of 59 patients with BS (33 in active and 26 in inactive phases) and of 28 healthy controls using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Differentially expressed protein spots with at least twofold and/or statistically significant change (p <= 0.05) between active BS vs inactive BS, and also active BS vs healthy controls were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Bioinformatic analyses revealed 16 differentially expressed proteins (12 of them in active vs inactive BS comparison, whereas 11 of them for active BS vs healthy control comparison) belonging to glycolysis, cytoskeleton organization, protein folding, and regulation of blood coagulation pathways. Stathmin (active BS vs inactive BS; fourfold, active BS vs healthy control; 4.7-fold) and WD repeat-containing protein-1 (active BS vs inactive BS; 2.7-fold, active BS vs healthy control; 2.7-fold), which are cytoskeleton-related proteins, were found to be lower in active patients compared to inactive patients and healthy control. Decreased levels of calreticulin (active BS vs inactive BS; 1.29-fold) and heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 (active BS vs healthy control; 1.5-fold) which are involved in protein folding and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress process, were observed in patients with active phase of BS. Down-regulation of protein folding and ER stress process proteins in BS patients may further support the involvement of ER stress in BS.