A detailed clinical examination of the newborn performed by nurse-midwife practitioners has been recommended as a standard practice throughout the most western countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of the primary and secondary care nurse-midwife practitioners on developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) before and after a structured lesson. The study was designed as a cross-sectional, pre- and post-test. The number of participants from primary care and secondary care nurse-midwife practitioners were 155 and 208, respectively. A structured questionnaire consisting of 28 statements of medical and practical knowledge, and traditional attitudes with regard to DDH was administered. The results determined that the pre-test scores were much tower than the post-test scores of both primary and secondary care practitioners. Although there was a lack of knowledge about DDH in both groups, the pre-test and post-test scores were higher in the primary care group compared to the secondary care group. In conclusion, the knowledge, attitude and practice of the primary and secondary care nurse-midwife practitioners on developmental dysplasia of hip are in need of improvement. This improvement may be provided by continuing education programmes. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.