This study aimed to evaluate the effects of partially N-acetylated chitosans with a degree of acetylation (DA) of 10% on in vitro propagation of an ornamental plant, Ipomoea purpurea, by emphasizing the importance of the degree of polymerization (DP) on in vitro plant development. The effects of either a chitosan oligomer mixture with a DP between 2 and 15 (5.0, 10.0, and 20.0mgL(-1)) or chitosan polymer with a DP of 70 were compared with commonly used cytokinins [6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0mgL(-1)] and auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0mgL(-1)]. The nodal explants used in this study were taken from donor plants obtained by germination of the seeds. The results indicated that all chitosan treatments had positive effects on the shoot induction, but only the oligomer mixture at 5mgL(-1) gave the best results for mean shoot number, shoot length, and leaf number, compared to the other treatments and control. Also, all chitosan treatments increased mean number of roots and triggered adventitious root induction. However, root elongation was decreased in the presence of chitosan in the medium. The root elongation-inhibitory effects of chitosan become clearer in the presence of oligomer mixture. In general, chitosan had similar effects with tested cytokinins rather than auxins. The results of this study suggested that the application of chitosan oligomersrather than polymerscan be an eco-friendly and effective alternative to synthetic cytokinins in horticulture.