Tumor Budding is an Independent Prognostic Factor to Predict Overall Survival in Endometrial Endometrioid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study

OKCU O., Sen B., Askan G., Ozturk C., Ozturk S., BEDİR R.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, vol.31, no.1, pp.26-37, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/10668969221116541
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.26-37
  • Keywords: tumor budding, endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, prognosis, MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION, CANCER, RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


Objective. Tumor budding defined as a tumor cell nest away from the main tumor, has been found to be associated with prognostic parameters in many cancer types. We aimed to investigate the relationship between tumor budding and clinicopathological parameters in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, as well as its prognostic importance. Materials and Methods. One hundred four patients who underwent surgical resection with diagnosis of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas between June 2011 and May 2020 were included. The area where tumor budding was the most prominent was determined, and tumor budding was counted from hematoxylin and eosin-stained section at one high power field (X 200). By performing ROC analysis, the cut off value was obtained in order to divide the patients into low and high tumor budding groups. Results. The cut off value was determined as 1/0.95 mm(2) according to the ROC analysis. Tumor budding was observed in 24 (23%) patients. Tumor budding significantly associated with poor overall survival (P < .001), distant metastasis (P = .001), presence of angiolymphatic invasion (P < .001), lymph node metastasis (P = .024), cervical invasion (P < .001), high FIGO grade (P < .001), large tumor size (P = .004). In multivarate analysis, tumor budding and age were found to be an independent risk factor for overall survival (P = .003, P = .014 respectively). Conclusion. Tumor budding is a significant morphological parameter independent of other prognostic parameters in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas. Standardizing the assesment and scoring of tumor budding, as well as including this entity in routine pathology reports could light the way for ideas in the risk analysis of patients.