A 9.5-year-old girl with malaise, fever, massive hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, leukocytosis (37.9x10(9)/L), monocytosis (1.48x10(9)/L), and thrombocytopenia is presented. Hemoglobin F was increased (18%). Bone marrow erythroid/myeloid ratio was 40/1 with 7% myeloblast and 5% monocyte suggesting erythroleukemia or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). The patient had a fulminant course with respiratory compromise and died in 2 weeks before heterozygous somatic mutation in the PTPN11 gene was shown. JMML must be considered also in the patients older than 6 years. A cytopenic phase may precede JMML. Leucocytosis may be transient and there may be predominance of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow.