© 2022 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeonsPurpose: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the jaws is a rare disease and is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. This study aims to assess the trabecular pattern of jaws via fractal analysis (FA) on initial panoramic radiographs (OPG) of the patients with LCH to facilitate interpretation of the radiographic changes. Methods: A case-control study investigated LCH cases with jaw involvement retrieved from the databases of Istanbul and Kocaeli Universities between 2010 and 2021. Initial OPGs of LCH cases and OPGs of healthy sex- and age-matched controls were investigated with FA. All images were assessed using ImageJ software. On each OPG, a total of 6 regions of interest (ROIs) located on the mandible were investigated bilaterally. The independent variables were the trabecular patterns of jaws of LCH cases and their control matches. The outcome variables were the fractal dimension (FD) values obtained from the ROIs on OPGs. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t test. Results: Fifteen LCH-control pairs were investigated. In one ROI located in the supracortical area above the left mandibular angle, FD values of LCH cases (1.273 ± 112.8) were significantly lower than controls (1.308 ± 85.3; P <.05). Lower FD values were also calculated for some of the remaining ROIs, but there was no significant difference between groups (P >.05). Conclusions: Regarding our results, FA was not a useful parameter to discern radiographical trabecular changes between LCH cases and controls. Multicenter studies with larger populations are needed to investigate the potential of FA in the identification of this rare disease.