This study aimed to describe the effect of initial antifungal therapy on patient mortality and to detail the current distribution and resistance patterns of Candida spp. among patients with candidaemia. A prospective observational study was performed among consecutive patients with candidaemia from 10 Turkish medical centres between January 2015 and November 2018. The primary outcome was 10-day mortality. Species were identified using MALDI-TOF/MS. A total of 342 patients with candidaemia were included, of which 175 (51.2%) were male and 68 (19.9%) were aged <18 years. The most common species were Candida albicans (47.4%), Candida parapsilosis (26.6%), Candida tropicalis (9.6%) and Candida glabrata (7.6%). Among all Candida spp., the 10-day case fatality rate (CFR) was 32.2%. The CFR was highest in patients with C. albicans (57.3%) and lowest in patients with C. parapsilosis (21.8%). The resistance rate to fluconazole was 13% in C. parapsilosis, with no significant effect on mortality. No resistance to echinocandins was detected. In the multivariate analysis, being in the ICU [OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.32-3.57); P = 0.002], renal failure [OR = 2.4 (1.41-3.97); P = 0.001], total parenteral nutrition [OR = 2 (1.22-3.47); P = 0.006], C. albicans infection [OR = 1.7 (1.06-2.82); P = 0.027] and echinocandin as primary agent [OR = 0.6 (0.360.99); P = 0.047] were significantly associated with mortality. Candidaemia is a deadly infection. Fluconazole resistance is emerging, although it was not significantly related to mortality. Using an echinocandin as the primary agent could be life-saving. (c) 2020 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.