HIV-1 Subtypes and Primary Antiretroviral Resistance Mutations in Antiretroviral Therapy Naive HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Turkey

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Sayan M., Willke A., Ozgunes N., Sargin F.

JAPANESE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol.66, pp.306-311, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.7883/yoken.66.306
  • Page Numbers: pp.306-311


In this study, we determined the subtype distribution and the primary drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains isolated from antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients in Turkey. The study included 117 newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive Turkish patients. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed according to the 2009 World Health Organization list of surveillance drug-resistant mutations. Subtype CRFs (CRF 02_AG, CRF 01_AE, CRF 12_BF and CRF 03_AB; 47%, 55/117) and B (33.3%, 39/117) were identified as the most common occurring HIV-1 subtypes in Turkey. The patients had primary antiretroviral resistance mutations to nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) (M41L, T215C, T215D, and K219Q), non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs; K103N), and protease inhibitors (PIs; I47V, G73S). The prevalence of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 7.6% (9/117) in HIV-1 patients from Turkey and drug-resistant rate for NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs were 4.2% (5/117), 1.7% (2/117), and 1.7% (2/117), respectively. In this study, various CRFs of HIV-1 were determined, for the first time, in Turkey. The prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug-resistant mutations in ART-naive patients suggested that resistance testing should be incorporated as an integral part of HIV management, and the choice of a first-line therapy regime should be guided by the results of genotypic resistance in Turkey.