Causality Relationships Between Per Capita Income and Research and Development (R&D) Expenditures in Asian Tigers, China, and Turkey

Kirca M., Canbay S., İNAL V., YILMAZ GENÇ S.

SOSYOEKONOMI, vol.29, no.48, pp.11-30, 2021 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 48
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.02.01
  • Journal Name: SOSYOEKONOMI
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.11-30
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigates the relationship between R&D expenditures and per capita income for Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore), China, and Turkey. For this purpose, the relationships between variables are investigated using the bootstrap panel causality test developed by Konya (2006). In the study, analyses are made using data between 1998 and 2016. According to the analysis results, there is a unidirectional causality relationship between R&D expenditures to per capita income in Hong Kong and Korea. On the other hand, there is a unidirectional causality relationship from per capita income to R&D expenditures in China and Turkey. The coefficients of these causality relationships are positive.