Photobiomodulation (PBM) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) share similar mechanisms but have opposite aims. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the target tissue in response to light combined photosensitizer (PS) application may lead to cell proliferation or oxidative damage depending on the ROS amount. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of indocyanine green (ICG)-mediated PBM on osteoblast cells by measuring cell viability, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and gene expressions of three phenotypic osteoblast markers. A diode laser irradiating at 809 nm (10 W output power, 50 mW/cm(2) power density) was used at 0.5, 1, and 2 J/cm(2 )energy densities (10, 20, and 40 s respectively) was applied following ICG incubation. No inhibitory effect was observed in cell viability and proliferation according to the (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Alamar Blue assays. ICG-mediated PBM did not alter cell viability but increased ALP activity and enhanced mineralization of existing osteoblasts. These results were also confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of osteoblastic markers. PS can be combined to PBM not only to damage the malignant cells as aimed in PDT studies, but also to promote cellular activity. The findings of this in vitro study may contribute to in vivo studies and ICG-mediated PBM can have promising outcomes in bone healing and regeneration therapies in future.