The rubber seals are used in different applications such as hydraulic systems, pneumatic systems, compressors, pumps, and internal combustion engines. When the seals contact with powder and pollutants during the service life, the abrasive wear occurs. The wear of rubber seals causes leakage of oil and also reduces durability of bearings. In hydraulic systems, the rubber seals are usually exposed to high temperatures. All types of rubbers are susceptible to chemical attack of varying degrees. The interaction between oil and elastomer and its influence on friction and wear behavior of elastomer has an important role in sealing performance. The rubber seals can be subjected to compressive stresses in working conditions. In this study, the influence of different working conditions such as oil, acid, and accelerated ageing on abrasive wear behaviors of several rubber seal materials such as nitrile butadiene rubber, fluoro rubber, and chloroprene rubber was investigated and the thermal and viscoelastic properties of these materials researched. Thermogravimetric analysis and compression set tests were performed to determine thermal degradations and viscoelastic properties of specimens. In this study, thermal treatments increase the hardness values of rubber specimens. The heat treatment and accelerated ageing reduced volume loss and wear rate values of all specimens. The acidic circumstances decreased the wear resistance of all specimens. Fluoro rubber specimen has more thermal stability than other tested rubbers and can be used reliantly at high temperatures. As nitrile butadiene rubber has low residual deformation value at elevated temperatures, it can be more preferred as seal material than other rubbers. When the results of this work are interpreted, the rubber seal materials which are made from nitrile butadiene rubber and fluoro rubber can be chosen for different working conditions.