Previous experimental studies have suggested that administration of antithrombotic, antioxidant, and cytoprotective agents have protective effects in caustic injury of the esophagus. Therefore, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin, on the esophagus after caustic burns. Sixty Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups of 20 animals each. In group A, animals were uninjured and untreated. In group B, animals were injured but untreated. In group C, rats were injured and administered intravenous iloprost for 3 days. Caustic esophageal burn was produced by 1 ml of 15% NaOH. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by measuring the tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase, and glutathione levels with biochemical methods on the 3rd postoperative day. Histopathological evaluation was done on the 28th postoperative day. The level of MDA was significantly increased in group B compared with the other groups. In group B, the histopathological damage score was significantly higher than in groups A and C. There was also a significant difference between groups A and C regarding the histopathologic damage. These results indicate that iloprost has a preventive effect in experimental caustic esophageal burn in rats.