High-fat diet-induced obesity adversely affects the female reproductive system. The metabolic changes that the high-fat diet causes on the ovaries have not been elucidated. Herein, to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term high-fat diet-fed, the changes in the global proteomic profile of the rat ovaries were investigated. The female rats were randomly divided into two groups based on their diets: the ones that were fed with the high-fat diet and the other ones that were fed with the control diet for 18 weeks. To identify differentially expressed proteins, the changes in ovary proteomes were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight and label-free quantification with nano-high performance liquid chromatography to tandem mass spectrometry (nHPLC-MS/MS). A total of 80 proteins were differentially regulated. The upregulated proteins were involved in responses to chemical and organic substances, cytokines, external stimuli, and lipids. These proteins were particularly associated with vesicles, microbodies, and cell surface proteins. The downregulated proteins were involved in biological processes associated with cellular respiration. Those proteins created a network consisting of proteins involved in aerobic respiration and energy generation. Our results demonstrated that the mechanisms related to energy production in the ovary tissue were particularly affected by the high-fat diet.