© 2021 Yıldız Technical University. All Rights Reserved.The study aims to identify the main reason of the thermal response time difference between historical and modern buildings. Therefore, in this study, the thermal response time of historical and modern wall structures and its effect on the interior air temperature change was investigated parametrically. Considering the environmental conditions of Kocaeli province, Turkey, the thermal response time of a historical building wall made of a cut stone was compared with those of brick and gas concrete wall structures having the same overall heat transfer coefficient using the second-order lumped capacitance approach. The insulation thicknesses of the three different construction materials for U-values of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 W/m2K were calculated and temperature variations of indoor environment, wall and insulation material were analyzed. In addition, the required thicknesses of insulation material to obtain the same heat transfer coefficients were determined in case of using the 0.1 m thickness of cut stone, brick and gas concrete structure materials. The maximum and minimum amplitudes of the inside air temperature were recorded as 0.59 and 0.18oC for the aerated concrete in Case 3 and for the cut stone in Case 2, respectively. As a result, the walls with high thermal inertia are less affected by the changes in the environmental temperature although their U-value is relatively high. For this reason, it can be stated that one of the reasons why historical buildings have thick walls is to increase thermal inertia and thereby improve thermal comfort by reducing energy loss. Cite this article as: Yüksel A, Arici M, Karabay H. Comparison of thermal response times of historical and modern building wall materials. J Ther Eng 2021;7(6):1506-1518.