Selenium (Se) is a trace element that incorporates into the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). There are conflicting results regarding the Se levels and activity of GSH-Px in adult uremic patients. The aim of this study was to determine (1) the hair Se status, (2) the possible relation between the hair Se status and the antioxidant enzyme, GSH-Px, and (3) the influence of different treatment procedures on hair Se status and GSH-Px activity in children with CRI, those treated conservatively and those on HD and on CAPD. Ninety-three patients, including 32 patients with CRI, treated conservatively, 42 PD patients, 19 HD patients and 34 healthy children were enrolled in the study. The hair Se level was measured by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. Plasma GSH-Px activity was determined using a Randox test combination (RANSEL). Hair Se levels were significantly lower in the CRI, CAPD, and HD groups when compared to the control group (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.001, respectively). Plasma GSH-Px activity was significantly lower in the CRI, CAPD, and HD groups when compared to the control group (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.001, respectively). Plasma GSH-Px activity correlated with the GFR in patients with CRI and the control group (P=0.000; r(2)=0.60). There was no correlation between plasma GSH-Px and hair Se levels in the patient and control groups. These results revealed a decreased hair Se level and impaired antioxidative capacity in children with CRI on CAPD and HD. The lack of any relation between plasma GSH-Px and hair Se suggests that plasma GSH-Px is not a good marker of Se stores.