One of the drawbacks preventing the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in clinical practice is the heterogeneous nature of their cultures. MSC cultures are not homogeneously formed by the MSCs and may contain non-mesenchymal cell types. Therefore, prior to use in clinics or research, complete characterization of MSCs should be performed to demonstrate the existence or absence of proper stem cell markers, many of which are happened to be cell-surface proteins. Unfortunately, the success of MSC characterization studies is limited due to the low specificity of the currently available cell-surface markers. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the plasma membrane (PM) proteins of MSCs isolated from human dental pulp (DP), adipose tissue (AT), bone marrow (BM), and hair follicle (HF) with the hope of proposing novel putative specific MSC markers. Differential-velocity centrifugation was used to enrich PM proteins. The isolated proteins were then identified by nLC-MS/MS and subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Proteins that were unique to each MSC type (CD9, CD10, CD63 for DP-MSCs; CD26, CD81, CD201, CD364 for AT-MSCs; Cd49a, CD49d for HF-MSCs; CD49e, CD56, CD92, CD97, CD156b, CD156c, CD220, CD221, CD298, CD315 for BM-MSCs) and common to all four MSC types (CD13, CD29, CD44, CD51, CD59, CD73, CD90) were identified. Uncharacterized proteins that have transmembrane (TM) domains were also detected. Some of the proteins identified in this study were the putative cell-surface markers that might be used for characterization of MSCs.