Creativity arises as a critical competency for 21st-century organizations, to lead or adapt to change. However, scant research has investigated the antecedents of employee creativity and creative behaviors in general among the employees of mature industries in particular. This research concentrates on the contextual factors to enlighten this issue. The findings reveal that autonomy has a positive impact on both creative behaviors and job performance while role ambiguity has opposing effects on both of them. Moreover the results indicate that autonomy also has a reducing effect on role stress. So this paper underlines the need to reconceptualize the mechanisms by which contextual factors influence creativity, and ultimately job performance; and suggest how managers of mature industries can promote creativity. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of 7th International Strategic Management Conference.