The interaction of single-pulse Nd:YAG laser, operating at 1064 nm wavelength and 6 ns pulse duration, with AISI 316L stainless steel target surface was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Surface modification of stainless steel using laser irradiation was studied by observing the effects of varying incident laser pulse intensities on surface morphology. Surface structure of laser treated stainless steel was determined by optical microscopy and profilometry analyses. Numerical calculation by heat transfer equation was performed for single laser pulse irradiation. The results, obtained by theoretical and experimental processes, of the interaction between single-pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation and AISI 316L stainless steel target surface are reported.