Environmental risks are being threated to public health significantly. The purpose of the study was to assess knowledge and attitudes on health effects of environmental risk of university students in the region of Kocaeli as an industrial city. A questionnaire was developed that focused on university students' knowledge and attitudes of environmental risk. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to university students in Kocaeli, and completed and returned anonymously. The highest rate (74.3%) of correct answers was obtained with the question about smoking "tobacco smoking is a risk factor for respiratory disease''. The lowest rate of correct answers (30.1%) was obtained with the question "residential exposure to radon gas is a risk factor for lung cancer''. When university students were asked to self-rate "environmental risks and resulting threat to health''; 59.1% of answers were indicating "the most significant threat is water pollution'', 15.2% of answers were indicating that "the lowest threat aspect is noise". School education on significant environmental risks is extremely needed for these university students in order to correct misconceptions, provide accurate information and to develop a positive attitude towards environmental risks.