This paper aims to study the effect of different surface coatings of carbon fiber on the thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of carbon fiber reinforced poly(phenylene sulfide) composites. To this end, unsized and different surface-coated carbon fibers were used. Prepared poly(phenylene sulfide)/carbon fiber composites were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, tensile test, dynamic mechanical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Tensile strength values of the surfaced-coated carbon fibers reinforced poly(phenylene sulfide) composites are higher than the unsized carbon fiber reinforced poly(phenylene sulfide) composite. The highest tensile strength and modulus values were observed for the polyurethane-coated carbon fiber reinforcement. Dynamic mechanical analysis studies indicated that polyurethane-coated carbon fiber reinforced composite exhibited higher storage modulus and better adhesion than the others. Differential scanning calorimetry results show that melting and glass transition temperature of the composites did not change significantly. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed that polyurethane and epoxy-coated carbon fibers exhibited better adhesion with poly(phenylene sulfide).