Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins. Short shelf life of fresh blueberries and chemical instability of anthocyanins make the handling of blueberries very challenging. Hence, the objectives of this study are to characterize anthocyanin contents of blueberry water and acetone extracts and to encapsulate the extracts with chitosan. The encapsulated material was analyzed for its particle size distribution, thermal characteristics, and efficacy to reduce cancer cell proliferation. The solvent type had a significant effect on the yield and chemical composition of the blueberry extracts. The effect of the blueberry extracts on cancer cell lines was dose-dependent and varied with the cell type and the composition of the extract. The lowest IC50 values were achieved with the water extract obtained at 22 degrees C, 8.2, and 8.4 mu g/mL extract for human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), respectively. The data reported in this study are essential for designing experiments to further examine the mechanism of the effect of the blueberry extracts on cancer cells.