Biogenic amines (BAs), a class of nitrogenous compounds that are frequently detected in wine, pose adverse effects to humans. However, with the largest red wine consumption in the world, little is known about national profiles correlating BAs in wines to toxicological/health risks in China. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of commercially available wines for the occurrence of BAs. Our sampling campaign covered >90% of wine brands (n = 456) in China in a three year span (2014-2016). The target BAs included tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. In order to quantitatively characterize the potential risk and/or support regulatory decision-making, chronic and acute BA exposure scenarios were developed and simulated with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The model described the fate and transport of BAs within human body using physical descriptions of relevant processes. These results provided baseline data that are needed for the risk assessment of dietary uptake of BAs and evaluating winemaking processes by food safety authorities.