Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM2.5) than coarse particles (PM>2.5), and the major trace elements identified in the PM2.5 included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM2.5. Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM2.5 were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM2.5 of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM2.5 was 1.57 x 10(-4), which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 x 10(-6). Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM2.5, the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 x 10(-4) and 3.89 x 10(-5), respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.